All research crucially depends on adequate funding. From public finances, Charles University receives what is termed “institutional funding”. The allocated amounts of institutional funding are based on previous research output and are used to finance the Charles University Research Development Schemes (PRVOUK), which are strategically targeted in order to strengthen the principal fields of research at the University. A lesser part of the above-mentioned funds is used as targeted support of (mostly young) researchers at the best-performing CU departments or institutes (UNCE) and to fund other minor schemes. In addition to these funds, researchers also need specific-purpose grants for individual research projects - whether from national sources Czech Science Foundation (GAČR), Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (TAČR), Internal Grant Scheme of the Ministry of Healthcare etc.) or from abroad (e.g. EU Framework Programmes including ERC). Independent research by students, especially in doctoral programmes, is funded by the University's own Charles University Grant Agency. To some extent, the funding opportunities are also a function of the institution's potential for transferring new knowledge and technologies into practice, a task entrusted mainly to the University’s Centre for Transfer of Knowledge and Technology.